Origin of the Universe
The Holy Quran says about a Creator Who created this vast universe. The Quran also describe how Creator created it. Does it match with the modern scientific observations and analysis?
It is important to know the origin of the universe to understand how the universe should evolve in future. Should the flow of time any resurrection? Does the universe possess any hell?
At the end of 19th century a powerful new tool was harnessed to the telescope. It provided a way for astronomers to measure the velocity with which a distant object was receding. With this instrument an American scientist Edwin Hubble showed that all distant galaxies were moving straight backward.
Hubble carried out his experiments on many galaxies in different directions and in different depth. In all the cases he found that the distant galaxies were receding from our own Milky way galaxy.
It was in 1920s when scientists Observed , for the first time, that the galaxies were receding which was said in the Holy Quran about 1400 years ago. ” So verily I call to witness the stars-that recede” Al Quran 81:15
Whenever I talked to my friends about the recession of the galaxies the asked me few common questions. I think, some of the readers may have the same questions. Following three paragraphs will answer those and will help in better understanding.
The stars of our Milky way galaxy don’t recede from the Earth or from the galactic center of Milky way . Other distant galaxies as a whole are receding from our own Milky way galaxy.
Distance of their galaxies are so huge that we do not see the in naked eyes. Only three galaxies , which are our nearer neighbors can be seen by naked eyes. In a clear dark nigh they look like faint dots Galaxies can be seen with large telescope but it cannot detect the recession. It is because of the great distance. At a large distance if an object moves towards a side can e seen easily but if it move straight forward or backward , it seems static. Galaxies are moving straight backward. Therefore in telescope they appear to b fixed, the recession of other galaxies can only be detected by using spectroscopy in which light emitted by those galaxies are tested and dippler shift shows how fat the object is receding.
” The speed of recession of nearby galaxies measured in this way is bout 300 miles per second . This is very fast by our every day standard, but because of the great distance between the galaxies it would be millions of years before there was any noticeable change in their position.” ABC of relativity by Bertrand Russel.
” So verily call to witness the stars that recede.” -Al Quran 81:15
It was scientist Edwin Hubble who witnessed the recession of the galaxies for the first time; and introduced a new era of astronomy.
It is to be mentioned that a few nearby galaxies are approaching towards us. It is a local phenomena and number of those galaxies is insignificant. All distant galaxies are receding.
In All directions and in all depth galaxies are receding. It indicates that the universe is expanding.
Velocity of recession is exactly proportional to their distance. Farther away the galaxies are, faster they are moving away Nearby galaxies are receding approximately 200 to 300 miles per second. On the other hand farthest galaxies so far discovered are receding at a speed nearing to the speed of light. This observation indicates that the universe is expanding.
Universe is expanding, is just discovered in 1920’s. Surprisingly, it was also stated in the Holy Quran 1400 years ago. ” With power and skill did We construct the skies (universe) : For it is We Who cause it to expand.” -Al Quran 52:47
Rate of expansion of the universe is expressed in Hubble’s constant (value to the speed of recession as related to distance).
“Hubble’s constant, as it is known; it is estimated at between 50 and 100 kilometers per second per megapersec. In other words, for every 75 km per second of measured recession velocity, a galaxy is about 1 megaprsec ( 3.25 million light years) away from us.” – The expanding Universe by John Gribbin.
“Hubble’s discover suggests a curiously egocentric picture in which all the galaxies seemed to be receding from our own Milky way galaxy, So we may be inclined to think that the Milk way is at the center of the universe. The idea may also be wrong, because, with each galaxy moving further away from every other, produces just the same kind of picture where ever you happen to e in the universe.” __The expanding Universe by John Gribbin.
However, it is more likely that the Milky way is in the center or very near to the center of the universe.
Before 1920’s people used to believe that the universe was static. Idea of a static universe necessitate assumption of an infinite universe to counter effect of gravitational force. Following Hubble’s discovery the idea of static universe was expanding.
“Even those who realized that , Newtons theory of gravity showed tat the universe could not be static , did not think to suggest that it might be expanding, Instead, they attempted to modify the theory by making the gravitational fore repulsive at a very large distance. This did not significantly affect their predictions of the motions of the planets, but it allowed an infinite distribution of stars to remain in equilibrium with the attractive forces between nearby stars balanced by the repulsive fore fro those that were farther way. However, e now believe such an equilibrium would be unstable; if the stars in some region got only slightly nearer each other, the attractive forces between them would become stronger and dominate over the repulsive forces so that the stars would continue t fall towards each other. On the other hand, if the stars got little farther away from each other, the repulsive fores would dominate and drive them farther apart”. __A Brief History of time by S.W. Hawking.
It is in 20th century when scientists have discovered that the universe is expanding that was stated in the Quran about 1400 years ago.
“With power and skill did we construct the skies: For it is We Who cause it to expand” __Al Quran 51:47
The universe is expanding. __Hubble’s Discovery.